SCAPIN-2: DIRECTIVE NO. 2, OFFICE OF THE SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
OFFICE OF THE SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
DIRECTIVE NUMBER TWO
TO THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT AND THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
OFFICE OF THE SUPREME COMMANDER
FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
3 September 1945
1. a. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters are hereby directed to comply, or to insure the compliance as the case may be, with the requirements of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers states in this Directive.
b. This Directive and such amplifying instructions by the Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters as may prove necessary thereunder, shall apply to Japanese and Japanese-controlled Armed Forces and appropriate civil agencies in the main islands of JAPAN and adjacent off-shore islands to include TSUSHIMA ISLAND, KOREA south of 38 degrees north latitude, and the RYUKYUS.
c. The requirements imposed by this Directive are designed to faciliate and insure the prompt and orderly establishment of the Occupation Forces of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in designated objectives within its area of application, and to establish certain controls over disarmament and demobilization of Japanese Armed Forces deemed necessary to insure orderly compliance with terms of surrender.
d. Additional requirements will be imposed from time to time as deemed necessary to carry out the above objectives.
2. a. The term “Japanese Armed Forces” as used herein shall be defined as all Japanese and Japanese controlled Army and Naval Forces including their Air Forces, Auxiliaries and quasi-military organizations, as well as all personnel employed by or attached to any of the foregoing, but shall not include civil police.
b. The term “Allied Representative” as used herein shall be defined as any Commander of Occupation Forces, or any Subordinate Commander, Staff Officer, or Agent acting under authority of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, or a Commander of Occupation Forces.
3. The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, who is also Commander-in-Chief, United States Army Forces, Pacific, has designated Commanders of Occupation Forces in areas of JAPAN proper and KOREA south of 38 degrees north latitude, as shown in detail on Map, Annex “A ”, which will be regarded as a part of this Directive. All orders or instructions issued by or under authority of these Commanders shall be regarded as being by authority of the Supreme Comrender for the Allied Powers within the area indicated.
4. The official text of all Proclamations, Orders and Instructions issued by authority of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers shall be in English. When a Japanese translations is also issued and any discrepancies occur, the English text will govern. When any question arises as to the meaning of any instructions issued, the interpretation of the issuing authority shall be final.
5. Commanding Officers of all organizations, units, or subdivisions of the Japanese Armed Forces will be held personally responsible by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers or the Commanders of Occupation Forces concerned, for the prompt and complete execution of instructions issued by Allied Representatives and applicable within the sphere of responsibility of such Japanese Commanding Officers.
6. Unless otherwise specified, time limits contained in this Directive are reckoned from receipt of this Directive by Japanese Imperial General Headquarters. Required reports will be submitted in English.
Japanese Armed Forces
1. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will, without delay, adjust boundaries of control of the First Japanese General Army to coincide with the Eighth United States Army and of the Second Japanese General Army to coincide with the Sixth United States Army, as outlined on Map, Annex “A ”, hereto.
2. a. The Commanding General, First Japanese General Army will report in person to the Commanding General, Eighth United Army, in the TOKYO area at hour and place designated by the latter, for instructions covering the entry of Occupation Forces into the area of responsibility of the Eighth United States Army.
b. The Commanding General, Second Japanese General Army will report by radio, without delay, to the Commanding General, Sixth United States Army, for instructions covering the entry of Occupation Forces into the area of responsibility of the Sixth United States Army. Initial radio contact through the facilities of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, subsequent direct contact as directed by the Commanding General, Sixth United States Army.
c. The Commanding General, Seventeenth Japanese Area Army, KEIJO, will report to the Commanding General, United States Army Forces, Korea (Commanding General, XXIV United States Army Corps), for detailed instructions covering entry of United States Army Occupation Forces into KOREA south of 38 degrees north latitude, in accordance with instructions previously transmitted to the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters.
d. A senior representative of the Chief, Japanese Imperial Navy General Staff, will report in person to a designated naval representative of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, in the TOKYO area at hour and place designated by the latter, for instructions covering the entry of United States Naval Forces into water areas and naval, establishments of JAPAN Proper and KOREA.
e. Japanese Commanders in the RYUKYUS will receive, at appropriate times, direct instructions from the Commanding General, Tenth United States Army, covering occupation of those islands by United States Forces.
3. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will submit to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers on demand:
a. Detailed information regarding the current location of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and all its departments, branches, and agencies. Locations will be accurately marked on maps to scale not smaller than 1:100,000. The complete official name and address of each department, branch, and agency of the Imperial General Headquarters will be given, together with the name and appointment or office of the Senior Officer or official of each such department, branch, or agency.
b. Detailed organization charts of the Japanese Armed Forces showing the chain of command to the level of divisions and independent brigades and comparable Naval units.
4. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will provide the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, without delay, the following information pertaining to each General Army, Area Army, Army, Division, Independent Brigade (all types), and Independent Regiment (all types) and comparable Naval units:
a. Designation and code name and number.
b. Specific location of Headquarters.
c. Commander's name.
d. Home depot.
e. Table of organization strength.
f. Actual strength, as of latest date for which strength reports have been received.
5. a. In the execution of the provisions of Part I, “General Order No. 1, Military and Naval,” relating to disarmament of the Japanese Armed Forces, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall remain responsible for the full and unqualified performance of such disarmament by Japanese Armed Forces.
b. Detailed instructions as to delivery of armaments to the occupation forces will be given directly to Japanese Commanders concerned by:
(1) Commanding General, Eighth United States Army, Commanding General, Sixth United States Army Forces, KOREA, within their respective areas of responsibility in the case of munitions stocks, armaments of the Japanese Army, and Naval and Merchant ships and armaments taken over by Army Forces.
(2) Designated Naval Representatives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers in the case of Naval vessels, shore establishments, supplies and equipment taken over by the United States Navy.
6. a. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall conduct the speedy and orderly demobilization of all Japanese Armed Forces.
b. Processes of demobilization, to include surveillance, rate of discharge of personnel and designation of units for demobilization, are subject to supervision by the Commander of the Occupation Forces in the area in which units are to be demobilized.
7. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters is responsible for continuing the maintenance and administration of Japanese Armed Forces until demobilized, and for the maintenance and preservation of all records and archives until relieved of this responsibility by Allied Representatives.
8. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall issue instructions:
a. That the following tasks be accomplished without delay:
(1) All boom defenses at all ports and harbors will be opened and kept open; they will be removed within fourteen (14) days.
(2) All controlled minefields at all ports and harbors will be disconnected and rendered harmless.
(3) All demolition charges in all ports and harbors will be removed, or rendered harmless and their presence clearly marked.
b. That all aids to sea and air navigation be re-established. Pending the accomplishment of this task, the existing war system of navigational lighting will be maintained except that all dimmed lights will be shown at full brilliancy.
c. That all pilotage services continue to operate and all pilots, equipped with charts, remain at their normal stations ready for service.
d. That Japanese personnel concerned in the operation of sea and air ports remain at their stations and continue to carry out their normal duties pending further instructions.
e. That all warships and merchant ships whether in port or at sea immediately train all weapons fore and aft and render them inoperative.
9. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall direct that, except as may be required otherwise in the execution of tasks assigned by Allied representatives, all personnel in Japanese warships, auxiliaries, merchant ships, and other craft remain on board their ships pending further instructions.
10. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will deliver to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers without delay the following information:
a. Details of coastal convoy routes and searched channels and of buoys, lights, and other navigational aids in Japanese and Korean waters.
b. Detailed lists of naval ammunition and naval fuel stocks, including furnace diesel, gasoline, and coal, as last reported to the Japanese Navy Ministry.
c. A list of all hospital ships, giving location, condition, and bed capacity.
d. Ten copies each of the latest published editions of all nautical and aviation charts and other hydrographic publications of whatever classification, covering the main islands of JAPAN and adjacent Islands, the RYUKYUS, CHINA, KOREA, and other territory occupied by the Japanese.
e. Triangulation and tidal data for the MARIANAS and CAROLINE ISLANDS.
11. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will deliver to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within 21 days the following maps and documents:
a. Two copies each of the latest editions of topographic maps of all scales and of whatever classification published under the authorities of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters, the Japanese General Staff and the Imperial Land Survey, pertaining to JAPAN, CHINA, KOREA, MANCHURIA and all other areas which have been occupied by the Japanese military and naval forces. Maps shall be arranged in separate folios to scale and area, and shall be accompanied by graphical indices showing the contents of each folio. All additional copies of such maps in possession of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters and its subordinate agencies shall be held in safe custody, pending further instructions by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, as to their ultimate disposition.
b. Two copies each of all records of geodetic positions and descriptions of triangulation stations and bench marks established in connection with topographic surveys of JAPAN, KOREA, CHINA and MANCHURIA and all other areas occupied by the Japanese military and naval forces.
c. All survey data of the PHILIPPINE ISLANDS captured by the Japanese Forces during their occupation of MANILA.
12. Immediate steps will be taken to mark clearly all mines, minefields, and other obstacles to movement by land, sea, and air, wherever located in the area covered by this Directive.
13. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will insure that all minesweeping vessels immediately carry out prescribed measures of disarmament, fuel as necessary, and remain available for minesweeping service. Submarine mines in Japanese and Korean waters will be swept as directed by designated Naval Representatives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
14. All Japanese land mines, land minefields, and other obstacles to include demolition charges, concealed explosives, and booby-traps, shall be made safe, and shall be removed at the earliest practicable date. Pending completion of the foregoing, all safety lanes shall be clearly marked and kept open.
15. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will insure that:
a. Arrangements are made to provide on call by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers complete information with respect to:
(1) All overseas international electrical communication facilities including cables, radio telegraph, radio telephone and radio broadcasting facilities.
(2) All long distance and main line electrical communication facilities interconnecting the principal points on HOKKAIDO, HONSHU, SHIKOKU, KYUSHU, KOREA and FORMOSA and the RYUKYUS and KURILE ISLANDS groups.
b. All overseas international and internal electrical communication facilities (including cables, radio telegraph, radio telephone and radio broad-casting facilities) in the area covered by this Directive are maintained intact and continued in operation with the existing personnel (whether military, naval and/ or civilian).
c. Access is provided upon demand by the representatives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers to the above-mentioned facilities for such censorship and supervision as circumstances may dictate to be necessary.
d. The senior representatives of the government, civil, air, naval and military signal communication agencies are made available on call to the Chief Signal Officer on the staff of the Supreme Commander for the Aliied Powers for instructions.
16. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will submit a report to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers without delay, furnishing the following information:
a. Detailed statement regarding health of the Japanese Armed Forces.
b. A station list of field and fixed hospitals controlled by the Japanese Armed Forces, showing location of each hospital and capacity in beds.
17. The Japanese Imperial Government will insure that the names of all towns, municipalities, and cities are posted in English on both sides of each inter-city highway entrance and on railroad station platforms, using letters at least six (6) inches high. Transcription of names into English shall be in accord with the Modified Hepburn (Romaji) system.
18. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will make available on demand detailed information concerning recruiting and discharge methods employed in the Japanese Armed Forces.
ALLED PRISONERS OF WAR AND CIVILIAN INTERNEES
1. a. The term “Prisoners of War” as used herein shall be construed as including all personnel held in Japanese custody:
(1) Who are or have been members of, or persons accompanying or serving with, the armed forces of any of the United Nations, or
(2) Who, as members of the armed forces of countries occupied by Japan, have been captured by the Japanese while engaged in serving the cause of the United Nations, and who, under terms of the Geneva (Prisoner of War) Convention of 27 July 1929, are entitled to be treated as prisoners of war even though such convention was not ratified by Japan, or
(3) Who are or have been members of or serving with the merchant marine of any of the United Nations.
(4) The term “Prisoners of War”does not include such personnel who, although formerly held in Japanese custody as Prisoners of War, have accepted release from the status in exchange for employment in or by Japan.
b. The term “Civilian Internees” as used herein shall g* construed as including all parsons without military status, detained by the Japanese Government, who are not nationals of the Japanese Empire as constituted on the tenth of July 1937.
c. The term “Prisoner of War and Civilian Internee Camp” as used herein shall be construed as including any camp, prison, ship, billet, hospital or other place of confinement or detention of Prisoners of War or Civilian Internees.
d. The term “Camp Commander” as used herein shall be construed to include the commanding officer of any unit detachment, or other element, or other element of, the Japanese Armed Forces or their Auxiliaries or any civil warden or other official charged with the custody of Prisoners of War or Civilian Internees.
2. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall furnish to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within forty-eight (48) hours the following information, if not herefore submitted:
a. A list of Prisoner of War and Civilian Internees Camps as defined in paragraph 1 above, showing for each:
(1) Official name or designation.
(2) Location with respect to the nearest prominent geographical point.
(3) Latitude and longitude in degrees and minutes.
(4) Total number of Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees, including, where appropriate, the number of females included in the totals.
(5) Geographical location of nearest railway station.
(6) Name and geographical location, dimensions, and condition of runways of the nearest airfield.
(7) Approximate number of Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees requiring hospitalization.
b. A marked map or maps of 1: 1000,000 scale on which the location of each camp is accurately plotted.
c. Marked maps of 1:100,000 or larger scale of each area in which Prisoner of War and Civilian Internees Camps are located, showing accurately the location of each camp.
3. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters upon receipt of this Directive shall dispatch to each Camp Commander by the most rapid means available the following instructions:
a. Assemble all Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees at the earliest oportunity and read the following statement in English and such other languages as may be required:
“The formal surrender of Japan to the Allied Powers was signed on 2 September 1945. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur has been named Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. United Nations Forces are proceeding as rapidly as possible with the occupation of the Japanese Home Islands and Korea. The relief and recovery of Allied Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees will be accomplished with all possible speed.
“Pending the arrival of Allied Representatives the command of this camp and its equipment, stores, records, arms, and ammunition are to be turned over to the Senior Prisoner of War or a designated Civilian Internee, who will thenceforth give instructions to the Camp Commander for maintenance of supply and administrative services and for the amelioration of local conditions. The Camp Commander will be responsible to the Senior Prisoner of War or designated Civilian Internee for maintaining his command intact.
“Allied Representatives will be sent to this Camp as soon as possible to arrange for your removal and eventual return to your homes.”
b. Turn over complete control of the camp to the Senior Prisoner of War or Civilian Internee, together with all equipment, stores, administrative and other records, arms, and ammunition, less such items as: may be designated by the Senior Prisoner of War or Civilian Internees for the use of the Japanese Camp Officials in the discharge of their functions as specified below.
c. Under the supervision of the Senior Prisoner of War or designated Civilian Internees, discharge the necessary administrative and supply functions, to include requisition of government or military stocks available locally, to insure:
(1) Rations equivalent to the highest scale available locally to Japanese Armed Forces or civilian personnel.
(2) The best medical care available, together with all necessary medical supplies.
(3) Adequate shelter, clothing and bathing facilties.
d. This Directive will constitute authority to requisition such government or military supplies available in the vicinity of the camp as are required for the discharge of the responsibilities specified herein.
e. Maintain camp organization intact and account to the Senior Prisoner of War or Civilian Internee for all camp personnel, camp administrative records, rosters, and records of transfer, hospitalization, and decease of individual Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees who are or have been confined in the camp.
f. Be prepared to supply, or to requisition from local government or military sources, transportation and supplies and to accomplish administrative arrangements for such movement of Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees as may be directed locally by Allied Representatives.
g. Under the supervision of the Senior Prisoner of War or Civilian Internee, prepare and dispatch the following information, to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers through the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters:
(1) Complete lists of all Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees present, showing names, rank or position, nationality, next of kin, home address, age, sex, and physical condition.
(2) Extracts from available records on deceased or transferred Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees, showing name, rank or position, nationality, next of kin, home address, date of death or transfer, and destination or in the case of deceased persons, place of burial.
4. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters shall transmit to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers without delay all information forwarded by Camp Commanders in response to the instructions specified in paragraph 3g., above.
The Japanese Imperial Government will place at the disposal of the Occupation Forces of the Allied Powers all local resources required for their use as directed by authorized representatives of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, or the Commanders of Occupation Forces within their respective areas.
The Japanese Imperial Government will establish one central agency and required sub-agencies in each of the major occupied areas, whose primary function will be to provide information concerning, and to receive requisitions for, areas and facilities required for occupation forces.
Provisions will be made to furnish Allied Occupation Forces with petroleum products, storage and distribution facilities as required to the limit of availability. Specific requirements will be submitted at a later date.
a. Labor Supply
The Japanese Imperial Government will provide, through central government agencies established in each of the major occupied areas, labor in quantities and with the training and skills and at the time and place designated by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, or the Commanders of the Occupation Forces within their respective areas. The agencies supplying labor will insofar as possible maintain the integrity of working groups such as construction gangs and longshoremen teams in order to secure maximum efficiency in control and production.
b. Labor Requirements
Labor requirements supplied by the Japanese Imperial Government for the Occupation Forces will include the following:
(1) General labor.
(2) Technical and semi-skilled labor.
(3) Stevedoring and cargo handling.
(4) Repair of roads, railroads, docks and other facilities.
(5) Construction of housing and releted facilities for Allied Occupation Forces.
The Japanese Imperial Government will be prepared to furnish to the Occupation Forces all buildings suitable for and required by these forces. Requirements will include the following general categories: Office buildings, hospitals, living quarters, warehousing and storage, shops, transportation and communication installations. Specific requirements will be submitted at a later date. Buildings will, insofar as possible, be of fireproof construction, equipped with running water, sewage disposal facilities, electricity, heating plants and situated on all-weather access roads.
Selected airfields will be made available to Occupation Forces as required. The runways, dispersal areas and service aprons will be cleared of Japanese planes and the runways improved, if required, to provide a hard surfaced landing area of maximum proportions with a minimum length of 5,000 feet. Passenger and freight terminals, maintenance, servicing and communications facilities will be made available at each field. All Japanese aircraft and equipment will be safeguarded pending further instructions. Complete lists of all types of serviceable operating and maintenance equipment, and facilities, will be prepared by type and areas and presented to Allied Representatives upon demand.
1. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will make immediately available in the TOKYO area, to the Chief Signal Officer on the staff of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, a radio-photo and still-photo laboratory complete with equipment and operating personnel.
2. Appropriate representatives of the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will report to the Chief Signal Officer on the staff of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within 48 hours with full information concerning available photographic personnel, equipment, processed and unprocessed film, and film and print libraries for both aerial and ground photography, which will thereafter be made available as demanded.
3. All agencies, civil and military, engaged in the collection, dissemination, and recording of weather information will continue normal operation pending further instructions. All meteorological data files and all equipment will be preserved intact. A station list of all weather installations will be submitted to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers without delay, showing international index members, geographical location, and classification (forecast, research, central, or observing).
4. The Japanese Imperial Government shall, without delay, furnish to the Chief Surgeon on the staff of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers the following information:
a. A comprehensive description of public health measures in force, with lists of principal officials, organizations and facilities.
b. Nature, location, and seriousness of current epidemics, including control measures in effect.
c. Last reported status of supply of drugs, medicines, and other sanitary supplies.
d. A list of all civilian hospitals, sanitariums, and other medical institutions, giving locations and bed capacities.
5. All voice broadcasts for public information, in languages other than the Japanese, will be discontinued forthwith.
By direction of The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers:
Lieutenant General, U.S. Army, Chief of Staff.
Action: Japanese Imperial General Staff (5)
" Japanese Imperial Government (5)
Information: Staff, CINCAFRAC (15)
" CINCPAC (5)
" CG, Eighth Army (3)
" CG, Sixth Army (3)
" CG, XXIV Corps (3)
" CG, FEAF (1)
" CG, USASTAF (1)
" CG, AFNESPAC (1)
" CG, Tenth Army (1)
" WARCOS (8)
" Com Third Fleet (3)
" Com Fifth Fleet (3)
" Com Seventh Fleet (3)
OFFICE OF THE SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
3 September 1945
ANNEX B )
1. The following Annex “B” is herewith appended to Directive Number 2 and shall have the same force and effect and become a part thereof.
2. The Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, with Headquarters at Guam, is designated as the Naval Representative for the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers within the meaning of Paragraph 2d, Part II, Directive Number 2. A Naval Liaison Group representing the Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet, is established in the Office of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, and the senior Officer thereof will serve for local and personal contact with the Chief and Representatives of the Japanese Imperial Naval General Staff.
3. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters will, without delay, adjust boundaries of the Japanese Imperial Naval Organization in Japan to correspond to those set forth in Paragraph I, Part II, Directive Number 2 for the Japanese Imperial Army. The Japanese Imperial Headquarters will direct the Naval Commanders of the areas thus designated to report to the Commanders, Third United States Fleet and Fifth United States Fleet, as the senior Japanese Imperial Army Headquarters in the same areas are directed to report to the Commanding Generals, Sixth and Eighth United States Armies. In the Japanese Naval areas corresponding to those of the Tenth United States Army areas arid the Twenty-fourth United States Army Corps area, the Japanese Naval Commanders therof will report to the Commanders, Fifth and Seventh United States Fleets, respectively. The Commanders, Third, Fifth and Seventh United States Fleets, are considered as Naval Representatives of the Supreme Commander for the. Allied Powers within the meaning of Paragraph 5b (2), Part II, Directive Number 2.
4. The operation of all Japanese merchant vessels of over one hundred gross tons will be subject to the supervision of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. The Japanese Imperial Government and the Japanese Imperial General Staff will report such vessels fully manned to the Commander-in-Chief, United States Pacific Fleet (or representatives designated by him), who is charged with the direction and supervision of their operation.
5. The terms “Commanders of Occupation Forces” as used in Paragraph 2b, Paragraph 3 and Paragraph 5, Part I, and Paragraph 6b, Part II, of Directive Number 2, will include the Commanders, Third, Fifth and Seventh United States Fleets, within their respective areas of responsibility, relating to Naval Occupation Forces and to disarmament and demobilization of naval units.